[ID:4-6350982] 2019-2020学年度高三英语阅读理解主旨大意专练(附解析)
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( …………○…………外…………○…………装…………○…………订…………○…………线…………○………… ) ( ※※请※※不※※要※※在※※装※※订※※线※※内※※答※※题※※ ) ( …………○…………内…………○…………装…………○…………订…………○…………线…………○………… ) 2019-2020学年度高三英语一轮复习阅读理解主旨大意专练 A ??? Humans have launched themselves into the outer space. They've landed on the moon. They've built habitable space stations that orbit the Earth. The next giant leap for mankind is to reach another planet – specifically, Mars. ??? The problem is that it's no easy task. The planet is 586 times further away from the Earth than the moon, and it'll take around 180 to 220 days to reach Mars, depending on where each planet is in its orbit. Such long periods in space have suggested many potential health problems, including hormonal changes, skin conditions, and muscle and bone deterioration (损耗). ?? ?Here's where some furry friends come in. A wide range of animals have been in space, from fruit flies and spiders to cats, and dogs. Such experiments began as far back as the late 1940s in first tests to see if living things could withstand the extreme g-force (重力) of a rocket launch. ?? ?Mice continue to play a very important part in space experiments, mainly because the animals make excellent test subjects. They're small, which makes them inexpensive and easy to care for. In addition, their size and short life span make it possible to do the equivalent of several human years of tests in a much shorter time. Finally, because mice are mammals, they share many common characteristics with humans in terms of genetics, biology and behavior. ?? ?Astromice have hit the headlines recently, as a team of scientists led by Betty Nusgens, professor of biology at the University of Liege in Belgium, found that the mice suffered a 15 percent thinning of their skin after 91 days aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ??? This experiment was part of a wider NASA mission (任务) called the Mice Drawer System (MDS). The Italian Space Agency developed the facility, which allows six mice to be housed, monitored, and automatically fed and watered aboard the ISS, among which three survived during the mission. ? ??The mice have participated in 20 separate experiments, to study such effects as osteoporosis (骨质疏松症), anemia (贫血) and heart health. ? ??Results for the 20 experiments are coming in gradually. But it's clear that mice continue to play an important role in the ongoing quest to conquer the final frontier. (1)We can infer from Paragraphs 2-3 that ______. A.?Mars is the farthest planet away from Earth discovered so far?????????B.?animals that have been sent into space have mostly survived C.?it was in the late 1940s that animals were first sent to the ISS?????????D.?the journey to Mars could put humans' health at risk (2)The underlined word “withstand” in Para.3 means _________. A.?set up??????????????????????????B.?come across??????????????????????????C.?work out??????????????????????????D.?hold up (3)According to Betty Nusgens and her team, the mice aboard the ISS ______. A.?all survived for the duration(期间) of the mission????????? B.?suffered the loss of part of their skin?? C.?were fed and watered by the astronauts???????? ?D.?participated in 20 experiments that made great breakthroughs (4)The main purpose of the article is to _____. A.?analyze how mice could pave the way to Mars????????? B.?report on the results of the Mice Drawer System C.?describe the role mice play in scientific research????????? D.?change people's traditional attitudes toward mice B ??? Dictionaries are not closed books. There is still plenty of room for more words in these great vocabulary authorities. ??? Dictionaries are not closed books. There is still plenty of room for more words in these great vocabulary authorities. New words are continually being created and added to our language. And many of today's word experts can credit a famous mathematician with the creation of the method by which they develop many new words. The mathematician was an Englishman named Charles L. Dodgson. In addition to working with figures, Dodgson wrote books. His imaginative stories and poems have made Dodgson beloved to generations of readers. We know him, however, not by the name of Dodgson but by his pen name, Lewis Carroll. ??? Lewis Carroll has delighted countless readers, young and old, with Alice in Wonderland, Through the Looking Glass, and numerous poems. In these works, Carroll developed dozens of nonsensical words such as "chortle" and "galumph". Many of these words are combined naturally with more common words in the English language. Carroll referred to his made-up words as "portmanteau" words, named after a kind of leather suitcase that opens into two compartments. The name was well suited, because most of Carroll's words had two compartments. Rather than being entirely fabricated(虚构), they were usually made from the combined parts of two different words. A "snark", for example, clearly came from a snake and a shark. ??? Although Carroll died long ago, his technique continues to be used today. We clearly see his influence in such words as smog, brunch, and guesstimate. (1)What does the underlined sentence probably mean according to the passage? A.?Dictionaries are open to the public. B.?Dictionaries are helpful to the public. C.?Dictionaries are ready to welcome new words. D.?The vocabularies in dictionaries are limited. (2)Dodgson's made-up words ________. A.?are based on different words??????????????????????????B.?are borrowed from other languages C.?all come from his poems?????????????????????????????????D.?are still widely used (3)This passage is mainly about ________. A.?how Dodgson wrote his works????????????????????????B.?how English words are created C.?how a dictionary is written??????????????????????????????D.?how Dodgson created new words C ??? Most people agree that honesty is a good thing. But does Mother Nature agree? Animals can't talk, but can they lie in other ways? Can they lie with their bodies and behavior? Animal experts may not call it lying, but they do agree that many animals, from birds to chimpanzees, behave dishonestly to fool other animals. Why? Dishonesty often helps them survive. ??? Many kinds of birds are very successful at fooling other animals. For example, a bird called the plover sometimes pretends to be hurt in order to protect its young. When a predator(猎食动物)gets close to its nest, the plover leads the predator away from the nest. How? It pretends to have a broken wing. The predator follows the "hurt" adult, leaving the baby birds safe in the nest. ??? Another kind of bird, the scrub jay, buries its food so it always has something to eat. Scrub jays are also thieves.They watch where others bury their food and steal it. But clever scrub jays seem to know when a thief is watching them. So they go back later, unbury the food, and bury it again somewhere else. ??? Birds called cuckoos have found a way to have babies without doing much work. How? They don't make nests(鸟巢). Instead, they get into other birds' nests secretly. Then they lay their eggs and fly away. When the baby birds come out, their adoptive parents feed them. ??? Chimpanzees, or chimps, can also be sneaky. After a fight, the losing chimp will give its hand to the other. When the winning chimp puts out its hand, too, the chimps are friendly again. But an animal expert once saw a losing chimp take the winner's hand and start fighting again. ??? Chimps are sneaky in other ways, too. When chimps find food that they love, such as bananas, it is natural for them to cry out. Then other chimps come running. But some clever chimps learn to cry very softly when they find food. That way, other chimps don't hear them,? and they don't need to share their food. ??? As children, many of us learn the saying "You can't fool Mother Nature." But maybe you can't trust her,either. (1)A plover protects its young from a predator by______. A.?getting closer to its young??????????????????????????????B.?driving away the adult predator C.?leaving its young in another nest???????????????????D.?pretending to be injured (2)By "Chimpanzees, or chimps, can also be sneaky" (paragraph 5), the author means______. A.?chimps are ready to attack others??????????????????B.?chimps are sometimes dishonest C.?chimps are jealous of the winners??????????????????D.?chimps can be selfish too (3)Which of the following is true according to the passage? A.?Some chimps lower their cry to keep food away from others. B.?The losing chimp won the fight by taking the winner's hand. C.?Cuckoos fool their adoptive parents by making no nests. D.?Some clever scrub jays often steal their food back. (4)Which of the following might be the best title of the passage? A.?Do animals lie??????????????????????????????????????????????????B.?Does Mother Nature fool animals? C.?How do animals learn to lie????????????????????????????D.?How does honesty help animals survive? D ? ??I suspect that the most basic and powerful way to connect to another person is to listen. Perhaps the most important thing we ever give each other is our attention, and especially if it's given from the heart. When people are talking, there's no need to do anything but listen to them. Just take them Just listen to what they're saying and care about it. Most times caring about it is even more important than understanding it. Most of us don't value ourselves or our love enough to know this. It has taken me a long time to believe in the power of the simply saying “I'm so sorry” when someone is in pain, and meaning it. ? ??One of my patients told me that when she tried to tell her story, people often interrupted to tell her that they had once had something just like that happen to them. Eventually she stopped talking to most people. She was just too lonely. We connect through listening. When we interrupt what someone is saying to let them know that we understand, we move the focus of attention to ourselves. When we listen, they know that we care. Many people with cancer can talk about the relief of having someone just listen. ? ??I have ever learned to respond to someone crying by just listening. In the old days I used to reach for the tissues(纸巾), until I realized that passing a person a tissue may be just another way to shut them down, to take them out of their experience of sadness and grief. Now I just listen. When they have cried all they need to cry, they find me there with them. (1)The author intends to tell us ?????????. A.?the art of listening????????????????????????????????????????????B.?the importance of listening to others C.?how to keep a talk going on???????????????????????????D.?how to ease a patient's pain (2)In the last paragraph, the author suggests that if a person is crying, you should ????????. A.?try to give him some comfort?????????????????????????B.?stop him from crying C.?cry with him??????????????????????????????????????????????????????D.?just keep listening to his crying (3)From the passage we can know that the author is probably a ???????????. A.?teacher??????????????????????????????B.?patient??????????????????????????????C.?speaker??????????????????????????????D.?doctor (4)What would be the best title for the passage? A.?care about it?????????????????????B.?Just listen?????????????????????C.?Don't interrupt?????????????????????D.?Mean it E ??? According to new research from the University of Cambridge in England, sheep are able to recognize human faces from photographs. ??? The farm animals, who are social and have large brains, were previously known to be able to recognize one another, as well as familiar humans. However, their ability to recognize human faces from photos alone is novel. ??? The recent study, the results of which were published in the journal Royal Society; Open Science, show the woolly creatures could be trained to recognize still images of human faces, including those of former President Barack Obama and actress Emma Watson. ??? Initially, the sheep were trained to approach certain images by being given food rewards. Later, they were able to recognize the images for which they had been rewarded. The sheep could even recognize images of faces shown at an angle, though their ability to do so declined by about 15 percent—the same rate at which a human's ability to perform the same task declines. ??? “Anyone who has spent time working with sheep will know that they are intelligent and individual animals who are able to recognize their handlers.” said Professor Jenny Morton, who led the Cambridge study. “We've shown with our study that sheep have advanced face-recognition abilities, close to those of humans and monkeys.” ??? Recognizing faces is one of the most important social skills for human beings, and some disorders of the brain, including Huntington's disease, affect this ability. ??? “Sheep are long-lived and have brains that are similar in size and complexity to those of some monkeys. That means they can be useful models to help us understand disorders of the brain, such as Huntington's disease that develop over a long time and affect cognitive (认识的) abilities. Our study gives us another way to monitor how these abilities change.” Morton said. (1)According to the new research, what's unusual about sheep? A.?They have large brains.????????????????????????????????????B.?They can recognize their owners. C.?They can tell animals from humans.???????????????D.?They can recognize human faces from photographs. (2)How did the researchers train the sheep? A.?By giving food rewards.???????????????????????????????????B.?By showing photos of famous people. C.?By guiding them to follow their handlers.?????????D.?By showing photos of humans and monkeys by tums. (3)What can be inferred from the passage? A.?Sheep have a higher face-recognition ability than monkeys.?????????B.?The new discovery is of great benefit to the study of cognitive ability changes. C.?The sheep's face-recognition ability may prevent some disorders of the brain.?????????D.?The sheep's face-recognition ability stays the same when shown photos at any angle. (4)What's the best title of the passage? A.?A Wonderful Scientist.?????????????????????????????????????B.?The Life of Sheep. C.?A New Discovery about Sheep.???????????????????????D.?How Sheep Recognize Each Other. F ??? Many people may not find the idea of visiting Beijing's Forbidden City just to see its cultural relics(遗迹)very exciting. But what if you got to see deer there too? That certainly sounds like a better day out. ??? Nine deer were introduced into the Forbidden City, also known as the Palace Museum, on Sept. 26 and would make it their home until February. The beautiful animals are part of an exhibition on deer-related relics, including furniture, clothes and artworks. In ancient China, deer patterns(图案)could be seen on lots of items since lu—deer—were considered to be a lucky animal because the Chinese word shares the pronunciation(发音)of the character that means “official salary(俸禄)”. ??? The deer in the Palace Museum are not only to be part of the exhibition, but also to act as ambassadors(大使)to attract visitors. “It's a better way to bring cultural relics closer to the people,”explained Wang Yamin, a deputy director at the Museum, according to ChinaDaily. ??? Turning itself into a zoo is the latest effort that the museum has made at introducing academic(学术的)art to ordinary people. ??? In 2014, for example, the museum's online store started to offer products such as T-shirts featuring the pattern of an emperor's coat, and earphones looking like the necklaces worn by ancient officials. These products soon gained popularity on social media because they allowed people to wear a piece of history. ??? Two years later, the TV series MastersintheForbiddenCity(《我在故宫修文物》)lifted the mysterious veil(面纱)on the experts who work in the museum—people whose job is to repair the relics within it. And while many of us may have imagined these workers to be old and boring, they're actually quite young and interesting. Some are even in their 20s. They lead a peaceful career, although it can sometimes be dull. Workers aren't allowed to wear any make-up or do their nails(指甲)because the chemicals(化学物质)may damage the relics they're working on, for example. ??? Little by little, the Palace Museum is shaking off the stereotypes(刻板印象)of being an old-fashioned academic institution. As Shan Jixiang, the museum's director, once said, “Academic research is not alien from the public's interest. We'd like to make visiting the museum a part of people's daily lives. ” ??? It looks like the Forbidden City isn't so forbidden after all. (1)What can be concluded about the deer in the Forbidden City? A.?They would stay in the museum for a whole year.????????? B.?They are part of an exhibition as lucky animals. C.?They have been introduced to help attract visitors.???? ?D.?They were brought to the museum for an artwork study. (2)Why did the online store's products become so popular? A.?They were cheap and of high quality.?????????????B.?They combined culture with everyday items. C.?They featured mysterious patterns.????????????????D.?They were advertised on social media a lot. (3)According to MastersintheForbiddenCity, experts working in the museum________. A.?think their job is boring???????????????????????????????????B.?are mostly old but experienced C.?must be careful with their work??????????????????????D.?enjoy working on their own (4)What's the article mainly about? A.?An interesting exhibition on animal-related relics.????????? B.?Popular products related to ancient Chinese culture. C.?What the Palace Museum does to protect cultural relics.????????? D.?The Palace Museum's efforts to change its image. G ??? How the Grand Canyon (大峡谷) was created remains one of the geology's greatest mysteries. Some evidence suggests that the process was a gradual one in which the Colorado River (which runs through the canyon) slowly cut deeper and deeper into the ground over millions of years. But volcanic rock samples taken from the canyon now suggest that the canyon was down-cut instead. ??? Down-cutting is when a flood of water rushes over a landscape (地形) with enough force to cut deeply into the ground and leaves behind a canyon. Such a flood is usually released when a natural or man-made dam (堤坝) bursts. ??? Robert Webb, a research geologist, says natural dams seem to have formed and broken across the Colorado River several times during the last million years. The dams were built when lava(熔岩) from the eruptions of nearby volcanoes flowed into the river. The lava hardened into hard rocks and blocked the river, causing it to back up and form a lake. Each time the lake grew so huge that it broke the rock dam, releasing a flash flood that furthered the down-cutting process and deepened the canyon. ??? Down-cutting is not just an earthly event. Satellite photos sent back from Mars suggest that the process has happened there, too, say many other researchers. ??? The photos, taken by the Mars Global Surveyor, indicate that an enormous lake existed on Mars 3.5 billion years ago. The lake spilled into a large nearby hole. One edge of the hole broke, releasing a flash flood that quickly carved out a grand canyon. ??? The existence of down-cutting on Mars is just one more piece of evidence that the cold, dry planet was once warm and wet. (1)In the past, deep canyons were believed to have formed _______. A.?as a result of a sudden break of volcanoes??????????B.?due to river flows over millions of years C.?owing to the burst of artificial dams??????????????D.?thanks to our ancestors' creative work (2)According to the passage, which of the following statements is TURE? A.?Several volcanoes broke out on Mars directly creating grand canyons.??????????B.?Several great lakes existed on the upper parts of the Colorado River. C.?People built high dams on the upper parts of the Colorado River.??????????D.?The Colorado River crossed the Grand Canyon to form down-cutting. (3)From the last three paragraphs we learn that _______. A.?there are great lakes on Mars?????????????????????????B.?there are active volcanoes on Mars C.?there might be cities on Mars?????????????????????????D.?there might be life on Mars (4)The passage can be titled as _______. A.?Lakes on Earth and Mars?????????????????????????????????B.?The Cause of Lake Formation C.?The Force of Dam Breaking?????????????????????????????D.?Canyons—Results of Flood Cutting H Does Fame Drive You Crazy? ??? Although being famous might sound like a dream come true, today's star, feeling like zoo animals, face pressures that few of us can imagine. They are at the center of much of the world's attention. Paparazzi (狗仔队) camp outside their homes, cameras ready. Tabloids (小报) publish thrilling stories about their personal lives. Just imagine not being able to do anything without being photographed or interrupted for a signature! ??? According to psychologist Christina Villareal, celebrities — famous people — worry constantly about their public appearance. Eventually, they start to lose track of who they really are, seeing themselves the way their fans imagine them, not as the people they were before everyone knew their names. “Over time,” Villareal says, “they feel separated and alone.” ??? The phenomenon of tracking celebrities has been around for ages. In the 4th century B.C., painters followed Alexander the Great into battle, hoping to picture his victories for his admirers. When Charles Dickens visited America in the 19th century, his sold-out readings attracted thousands of fans, leading him to complain (抱怨) about his lack of privacy. Tabloids of the 1920s and 1930s ran articles about film-stars in much the same way that modern tabloids and websites do. ??? Being a public figure today, however, is a lot more difficult than it used to be. Superstars cannot move about without worrying about photographers with modern cameras. When they say something silly or do something ridiculous, there is always the Internet to spread the news in minutes and keep their “story” alive forever. ??? If fame is so troublesome, why aren't all celebrities running away from it? The answer is there are still ways to deal with it. Some stars stay calm by surrounding themselves with trusted friends and family or by escaping to remote places away from big cities. They focus not on how famous they are but on what they love to do or whatever made them famous in the first place. ??? Sometimes a few celebrities can get a little justice. Still, even stars who enjoy full justice often complain about how hard their lives are. They are tired of being famous already. (1)It can be learned from the passage that stars today___________. A.?are often misunderstood by the public B.?can no longer have their privacy protected C.?spend too much on their public appearance D.?care little about how they have come into fame (2)What is the main idea of Paragraph 3? A.?Great heroes of the past were generally admired. B.?The problem faced by celebrities has a long history. C.?Well-known actors are usually targets of tabloids. D.?Works of popular writers often have a lot of readers. (3)What makes it much harder to be a celebrity today? A.?Availability of modern media.?????????????????????????B.?Inadequate social recognition. C.?Lack of favorable chances.???????????????????????????????D.?Huge population of fans. (4)What is the author's attitude toward modern celebrity? A.?Sincere.??????????????????????B.?Sceptical.??????????????????????C.?Disapproving.??????????????????????D.?Sympathetic. I ??? Many science fiction stories tell about explorers arriving in a new world. The explorers then use some kind of high-tech device to test for breathable air or signs of life. But here on Earth, science fiction is becoming reality through a new sampling technology called environmental DNA, or eDNA for short. Scientists can use it to identify rare species or estimate fish populations with just a little air or water. ??? Environmental DNA can be used in two ways. One is to identify the creatures that live in a certain place. The other is to confirm the presence or lack of a specific creature. ??? Caren Goldberg is one of the first biologists to take the technology from the testing stage to actually using it. She sees eDNA as a way to get answers more efficiently and with less destruction compared to traditional survey techniques. Until recently, scientists depended on snorkeling ( 潜水), netting or using an electric current to temporarily catch fish. ??? This newer way to identify what lives in the environment is becoming popular around the world. Animal experts in Vietnam are using the eDNA to find the last, wild Yangtze giant softshell turtles. One researcher on the Caribbean island of Trinidad is using the sampling technology to find endangered golden treefrogs. In Madagascar, it is being used to identify amphibian(两栖动物)diseases. ??? Ms Goldberg has used eDNA testing to confirm the local extinction (灭绝) of a leopard frog in the American state of Idaho. She has also been asked to document the spread of the New Zealand mudsnail in the state of Washington. The creature has been found in lakes and other waterways across the state. ??? Scientists working with the technology say they do not expect robots to replace field biologists anytime soon. But the old-fashioned field work could soon be more targeted. (1)Compared to traditional survey techniques, eDNA is more______. A.?complex??????????????????????B.?eco-friendly??????????????????????C.?dangerous??????????????????????D.?convincing (2)By using eDNA, Caren Goldberg has______. A.?succeeded in catching many fishes B.?found the existence of golden tree frogs C.?documented the spread of softshell turtles D.?confirmed the disappearance of the leopard frog in Idaho (3)What can we infer from the last paragraph? A.?Robots will replace scientists soon. B.?Some scientists are against using eDNA. C.?The old-fashioned field work may disappear. D.?Many biologists are unwilling to do the field work. (4)What is the best title for the text? A.?Science Fiction Becomes Reality for Species Surveys B.?Biologists Explore Space with the Help of eDNA C.?Scientists Found Methods to Test for Signs of Life D.?New Technologies Are Presented in Science Fictions J ??? According to Gallup's annual Global Emotions report, people all over the world are more stressed than ever before. Nearly 40 percent of adults from 146 countries reported having experienced worry or stress. And it isn't just adults experiencing these high stress levels; experts have also observed a rise in the number of children and youth. According to another study published in EurekAlert, one in five students are so stressed that they've considered self-harm or suicide. The immense stress they face has been proven to be harmful to their health. ??? It's no news that stress can trigger anxiety, depression and self-harming behaviors, and cause sleep problems, social withdrawal, angry outbursts and obsessive-compulsive behaviors. We are moving towards a society where an increasing number of us face mental health problems that stem from high stress levels. If stress increases rapidly, how can we fight it? ??? It might sound easier said than done but studies have shown that the best way to deal with stress is to change your perception(认识) of it. ??? The University of Wisconsin conducted a study of 30,000 Americans. Researchers asked them how much stress they'd experienced in the past year and whether they believed stress was harming their health. The researchers concluded that people in the study who were exposed to large amounts of stress and viewed stress as harmful had 43 percent higher risk of dying than people who viewed stress as a helpful response. ??? More interestingly, those with more positive perceptions of stress had the lowest risk of death out of all involved in the study, even lower than those experiencing very little stress. ??? A separate study conducted by researchers from King's College London and the University of Marburg showed students with more negative beliefs about stress experienced more physical symptoms, such as headaches, tension and tiredness during a stressful end-of-semester exam period, compared with students who had more positive beliefs about stress. ??? These two studies have proven that stress itself is not actually bad. It is the belief that stress is bad that is bad. (1)According to the passage, we can learn that ________. A.?more and more people suffer from higher stress levels B.?one in five adults in America has considered self-harm C.?30,000 children have experienced stress in the past year D.?youth are more likely to believe stress is helpful than adults (2)The research by the University of Wisconsin concludes ________. A.?stress generally benefits us???????????????????????????B.?stress leads to a higher risk of death C.?people under stress often perform better????D.?optimism cuts the risk of stress-related death (3)The separate study in Paragraph 6 is mentioned to ________. A.?put forward a new idea???????????????????????????????????B.?support the above findings C.?compare different findings?????????????????????????????D.?argue against the above point (4)What would be the best title for this passage? A.?Stress Affects People of All Ages B.?We Are Winning the Battle against Stress C.?Stress Damages Your Health if You Think So D.?Negative Beliefs about Stress Cause Tension 答案解析部分 A.【答案】(1)D(2)D(3)B(4)A 【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文,介绍了在太空探索中,老鼠其中很重要的作用。尤其是在人类探索火星的时候,老鼠能够帮助我们铺平前进的道路。 ⑴考查推理判断题。根据第二段中的”Such long periods in space have suggested many potential health problems, including hormonal changes, skin conditions, and muscle and bone deterioration (损耗).“可知前往火星充满力量危险,人们也许会遇见很多健康方面的问题。故D项正确。 ⑵考查词义猜测。根据第二段中的”Such long periods in space have suggested many potential health problems, including hormonal changes, skin conditions, and muscle and bone deterioration (损耗).“可知在前往火星的太空中会有很多危险,人们可能会遇见很多健康方面的问题。所以人们选择先让老鼠这类的动物代替人类进入太空,检查它们是否可以承受太空中的危险。故D项正确。 ⑶考查细节理解。根据第五段中的”the mice suffered a 15 percent thinning of their skin after 91 days aboard the International Space Station (ISS).“可知人们发现老鼠在太空中91天以后,它们的皮肤有了问题。故B项正确。 ⑷考查主旨大意。本文属于科普说明文,介绍了在太空探索中,老鼠其中很重要的作用。尤其是在人类探索火星的时候,老鼠能够帮助我们铺平前进的道路。故A项正确。 【点评】本题涉及推理判断、词义猜测、细节理解和主旨大意四个题型的考查,要求考生在捕捉细节内容的基础上,运用逻辑思维能力,根据上下文联系进一步分析、推理、概括和归纳。 B (1)C(2)A(3)D 【解析】【分析】本文为介绍说明文。文章主要介绍了Charles L. Dodgson是如何创造新词的。 (1)句意理解题。根据下文的There is still plenty of room for more words in these great vocabulary authorities.可推知,词典并不是封闭的书,仍然可以添加新的词汇。故选C。 (2)细节理解题。根据第三段中的Rather than being entirely fabricated(虚构), they were usually made from the combined parts of two different words. A "snark", for example, clearly came from a snake and a shark.可知,Dodgson创造的词是以不同的词为基础的,而不是凭空想象出来的。故选A。 (3)主旨大意题。通读全文可知,本文主要介绍了Charles L. Dodgson是如何创造新词的。故选D。 【点评】阅读理解最常设的题目是细节理解题,做题关键是找出原文的根据,认真核查题干选项和原文的异同,常犯错误有:绝对化语言,范围扩大或缩小,以偏概全,张冠李戴等。考生首先要浏览短文后的小题题干,标出关键词(组),带着问题去阅读,能够做到心中有数,目的明确;然后再仔细阅读短文,完整了解信息,准确把握细节信息,并标出能得出答案的有效信息。如第2小题“Dodgson's made-up words____”属于细节理解题,通过第三段中的Rather than being entirely fabricated(虚构),they were usually made from the combined parts of two different words. A "snark", for example, clearly came from a snake and a shark.(不是完全地虚构,它们经常来自于两个不同的单词的组合。如snark,明显来自于snake和shark的组合)由此可知,Dodgson创造的词是以不同的词为基础的,而不是凭空想象出来的。其它选项如B. are borrowed from other languages(从其它语言中借来的),C. all come from his poems(都源自他的诗歌)与文章事实明显不符;D. are still widely used(仍然被广泛使用)在文章中也并没有提及他创造的词的使用情况,只提到了他的这种造词法仍然被使用(his technique continues to be used today)。同学们在做阅读理解题时,一定要细心,对有效信息做好标识,这样才能对自己的选择做到有理有据,这样才能提高自己的阅读理解的能力。 C【答案】 (1)D(2)B(3)A(4)A 【解析】【分析】文章通过举了一些鸟类和大猩猩的例子,说明动物有时会撒谎,这也是它们生存的需要。 (1)D细节理解题。根据第二段的第二句话:a bird called the plover sometimes pretends to be hurt inorder to protect its young.可知啄木鸟保护孩子不受猎食动物侵害是通过假装受伤,故选D。 (2)B细节理解题。根据第五段的最后一个句子:But an animal expert once saw a losing chimp take thewinner's hand and start fighting again.一个输了的大猩猩抓住获胜的大猩猩的手又开始打斗了,可知这句话的意思是大猩猩也可能不诚实,故选B。 (3)A细节理解题。根据文章第六段的句子:But some clever chimps learn to cry very softly when theyfind food. That way, other chimps don't hear them,? and they don't need to share their food可知一些大猩猩放低它们的叫声,这样让别的大猩猩得不到食物,故选A。 (4)A文章标题题。根据全篇文章的内容和第一段第二行的句子,Can they lie with their bodies and behavior?可知这篇文章讲的是动物也会撒谎,故选A。 D【答案】(1)B(2)D(3)D(4)B 【解析】【分析】本文是一篇议论文,讲述听别人说话的重要性。 (1)考查写作意图。根据主题段第一段中的“When people are talking, there's no need to do anything but listen to them.”,可知本文说的是听别人说话的重要性。故选B。 (2)考查细节理解。根据最后一段中的“I have ever learned to respond to someone crying by just listening.”可知作者建议如果一个人想要哭的话,你只需要听她/他哭就够了。故选D。 (3)考查细节理解。根据第二段中的“One of my patients told me that when she tried to tell her story”可知,作者是一位医生。故选D。 (4)考查主旨大意。根据第一段中的“When people are talking, there's no need to do anything but listen to them. Just take them Just listen to what they're saying and care about it. ”可知,文章介绍了听别人说话的重要性,故选B。 【点评】本题考点涉及细节理解,写作意图和主旨大意三个题型的考查,要求考生在捕捉细节信息的基础上,进一步根据上下文的逻辑关系,进行分析,推理,概括和归纳,从而选出正确答案。 E【答案】(1)D(2)A(3)B(4)C 【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文,新的研究表明绵羊能够从照片中识别人脸。 (1)考查细节理解。根据第一段中的“sheep are able to recognize human faces from photographs.“可知绵羊的不同之处在于它们能够从照片中识别人脸,故选D。 (2)考查细节理解。根据第四段中的“Initially, the sheep were trained lo approach certain images by being given food rewards.“可知研究人员通过给绵羊食物奖励来训练绵羊,所以选A。 (3)考查推理判断。根据最后一段中的“Our study gives us another way to monitor how these abilities change,“可推断出新的发现有益于对认知能力改变的研究,故选B。 (4)考查主旨大意。根据第一段“According to new research from the University of Cambridge in England, sheep are able to recognize human faces from photographs.“可知本文主要讲了新的研究表明绵羊能够从照片中识别人脸,故选C。 【点评】本题考点涉及细节理解,推理判断和主旨大意三个题型的考查,是一篇科普类阅读,要求考生准确捕捉细节信息,并进一步根据上下文的逻辑关系,进行分析,推理,概括和归纳,从而选出正确答案。 F【答案】(1)C(2)B(3)C(4)D 【解析】【分析】本文是一篇新闻报道,讲述了故宫为了改变形象所做的努力,包括引进麋鹿吸引游客和售卖印有皇帝龙袍图案的T恤等物品。 (1)考查细节理解。根据第三段中的“The deer in the Palace Museum are not only to be part of the exhibition,? but also to act as ambassadors to attract visitors”故宫博物馆里的鹿不仅是展览的一部分,同时也作为大使来吸引游客,可知选C。 (2)考查推理判断。根据第五段中的“because they allowed people to wear a piece of history”以及上面的内容中印有皇帝龙袍图案的T恤和大臣上朝用的朝珠形状的耳机来判断, 可知选B。 (3)考查细节理解。根据倒数第三段中工人不能使用化妆品和涂指甲油, 因为化学物质可能会损害他们所修复的文物,可知选C。 (4)考查主旨大意。纵观全文可知, 引进麋鹿吸引游客和售卖印有皇帝龙袍图案的T恤等物品, 这些都是故宫为了改变形象所做的努力。故选D。 【点评】本题考点涉及细节理解,推理判断和主旨大意三个题型的考查,是一篇新闻报道,要求考生在捕捉细节信息的基础上,进一步根据上下文的逻辑关系,进行分析,推理,概括和归纳,从而选出正确答案。 G【答案】(1)B(2)B(3)D(4)D 【解析】【分析】本文作者认为大峡谷的形成是洪水下切侵蚀造成的,主要是上游的湖泊泛滥下切侵蚀造成了峡谷,文章还介绍了在火星也有这种现象。 ⑴细节理解。从文章第一段的句子:Some evidence suggests that the process was a gradual one in which the Colorado River (which runs through the canyon) slowly cut deeper and deeper into the ground over millions of years.可知,一些证据表明深深的峡谷据相信是由于几百万年的河流冲刷造成的,故答案为B。 ⑵细节理解。从文章第三段的句子:The lava hardened into hard rocks and blocked the river, causing it to back up and form a lake.可知,熔岩形成坚硬的岩石,阻挡了河流,使河的上游形成湖泊,故答案为B。 ⑶细节理解。从文章最后一段的句子The existence of down-cutting on Mars is just one more piece of evidence that the cold, dry planet was once warm and wet.可知,火星上流水侵蚀地貌的存在证明了火星上原来是温暖湿润的气候,也就是适宜生命存活,故答案为D。 ⑷主旨大意。从文章的内容和第二段的句子Down-cutting is when a flood of water rushes over a landscape (地形) with enough force to cut deeply into the ground and leaves behind a canyon.可知,这篇文章讲的是峡谷是由洪水下切侵蚀造成的,故答案为D。 【点评】本文属于说明文,阅读时在文章首段确定文章的中心句,然后快速浏览文章内容。阅读问题,找到问题中的关键词。在文章中定位问题中的关键词,答案就在关键词附近。 H【答案】(1)B(2)B(3)A(4)D 【解析】【分析】文章讲述的是成名给名人们的生活带来的影响,以及处理这些问题的方法,并依此引发读者思考。 (1)B 推理题:根据第一段的“They are at the center of much of the world's attention. Paparazzi (狗仔队) camp outside their homes, cameras ready. Tabloids (小报) publish thrilling stories about their personal lives”他们是全世界关注的焦点,狗仔队在他们家外面扎营,小报上到处都是关于他们私人生活的惊悚故事。可知,他们的生活完全被媒体多报道,生活中的隐私已经处于了没有任何保护的状态了。故选择B项 (2)B 段落大意题:根据第三段的中心句,即第一句“The phenomenon of tracking celebrities has been around for ages”可知,该段落主要讲的是追踪名人已经有了很久的历史了。即B选项。 (3)A 细节理解题:根据第四段的“Superstars cannot move about without worrying about photographers with modern cameras. When they say something silly or do something ridiculous, there is always the Internet to spread the news in minutes and keep their “story” alive forever”可知,他们做任何事情都会被现代照相机、英特网等当代媒体捕捉到,因此,这些现代媒体让今天的人成为名人不容易。选A (4)D 态度意图题:通读全文可知,作者介绍了很多名人受成名所累,失去了生活的隐私,失去了自我,变得孤独、变得被世界隔离,因此可以推断出作者对他们抱有同情的态度。即选择D项,Sincere真诚的 Sceptical怀疑的disapproving反对的 Sympathetic同情的。 I【答案】 (1)B(2)D(3)C(4)A 【解析】【分析】这是一篇科普文章阅读,主要向读者介绍了科学界一项新的采样技术——环境DNA,利用一点空气或水识别罕见的外来入侵物种或研究生物的多样性。 (1)推理判断题。根据第三段中She sees eDNA as a way to get answers more efficiently and with less destruction compared to traditional survey techniques.可知,与传统的调查技术相比,eDNA更加环保。故答案选B。 (2)细节理解题。根据倒数第二段中Ms Goldberg has used eDNA testing to confirm the local extinction (灭绝) of a leopard frog in the American state of Idaho.可知,通过使用eDNA,卡伦·戈德堡证实了爱达荷州豹蛙的消失。故答案选D。 (3)推理判断题。根据最后一段Scientists working with the technology say they do not expect robots to replace field biologists anytime soon. But the old-fashioned field work could soon be more targeted.可知,从最后一段我们可以推断出“老式的田间作业可能会消失。”由此可知答案为C。 (4)主旨大意题。根据第一段中But here on Earth, science fiction is becoming reality through a new sampling technology called environmental DNA, or eDNA for short. Scientists can use it to identify rare species or estimate fish populations with just a little air or water.“但在地球上,通过一种名为环境DNA (eDNA)的新采样技术,科幻小说正在变成现实。科学家可以用它来鉴定稀有物种,或者用少量的空气或水来估计鱼类的数量。”由此可知,本文最佳主题是“Science Fiction Becomes Reality for Species Surveys”。故答案选A。 【点评】段落及文章整体的主题大意的理解  1)寻找主题句,确定文章主题:主题句在文章中的位置通常有三种情况:开头、中间、结尾(含在开头结尾同时出现、首尾呼应的主题句)。 2) 抓住文章段落大意,概括中心思想:寻找整篇文章的中心思想的方法是建立在寻找具体段落中心的基础上的。各段落中心句的整体归纳便是文章的中心思想。 3)抓住文章主线和关键词语,归纳文章中心:根据文章的细节来分析,概括出段落的主题,从而推导出文章的主旨。 J【答案】 (1)A(2)D(3)B(4)C 【解析】【分析】这是一篇夹叙夹议的文章。文章主要讲了研究表明,如果你认为压力会损害你的健康,它就会损害你的健康。 (1)细节理解题。答案定位在第一段According to Gallup's annual Global Emotions report, people all over the world are more stressed than ever before.(根据盖洛普的年度全球情绪报告,世界各地的人们比以往任何时候都更紧张。)由此可知越来越多的人承受着更高的压力,故答案选A。 (2)推理判断题。答案定位在第四段The researchers concluded that people in the study who were exposed to large amounts of stress and viewed stress as harmful had 43 percent higher risk of dying than people who viewed stress as a helpful response.(研究人员得出结论,在这项研究中,与那些认为压力是一种有益的反应的人相比,那些暴露在大量压力下并认为压力有害的人死亡的风险要高43%。)由此推断出Wisconsin大学的这项研究得出结论,乐观可以降低与压力有关的死亡风险,故答案选D。 (3)推理判断题。第六段A separate study conducted by researchers from King's College London and the University of Marburg showed students with more negative beliefs about stress experienced more physical symptoms, such as headaches, tension and tiredness during a stressful end-of-semester exam period, compared with students who had more positive beliefs about stress.说伦敦国王学院和马尔堡大学的研究人员进行的另一项研究显示,对压力持消极看法的学生在期末考试期间会出现更多的身体症状,比如头痛、紧张和疲劳。由此推知第六段提到的研究是为了支持上述发现,故答案选B。 (4)主旨大意题。最后一段These two studies have proven that stress itself is not actually bad. It is the belief that stress is bad that is bad.(这两项研究证明,压力本身并不坏。认为压力不好的信念才是不好的。)是全文的主题句,结合全文内容,可知这篇文章主要讲了如果你认为压力会损害你的健康,它就会损害你的健康,故答案选C。 【点评】这是一篇夹叙夹议的文章,阅读时在首段可以确定文章的主题句, 答题时通过题干中的关键词在文章中定位,然后分析相关信息,从而确定与题干相符的选项。 ? ( 1 )
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